Collection ID: LMC 1197
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Collection context


The Cleland mss., 1911-1946, consists of the papers of botanist Ralph Erskine Cleland, 1892-1971. They consist chiefly of correspondence with prominent scientists on Oenothera, evening primrose.
2 Boxes (2 standard)
Materials are in English .
Preferred citation:

[Item], Cleland mss., Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.


Biographical / Historical:

In the summer of 1918, Cleland assisted Bradley Moore Davis in research on Oenothera by investigating the behavior of the chromosomes which resulted in a startling discovery. Some of the chromosomes in the Oenothera behaved in the normal manner while others regularly arranged themselves end to end in a circle, adjacent chromosomes going into different reproductive cells. Although such chromosomal behavior had been sporadically noted no one had recognized that it occurred regularly for some chromosomes of some organisms. Cleland felt that his discovery might be the clue to understanding the already known erratic pattern of heredity in Oenothera and thereby converting one of the apparent discrepancies with the chromosome theory into one of its strongest supports. Furthermore, his discovery might explain the sudden large hereditary variations which occurred in Oenothera and had been the main basis of the theory of mutation proposed in 1901 by the Dutch botanist Hugo de Vries as an alternative to Darwin's theory of evolution. Cleland demonstrated the causes and the effects of the circles of chromosomes on patterns of heredity and on the origin of large hereditary variations. He used what he had discovered to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Oenothera. A comprehensive study of Oenotheras of North America and to a lesser degree of Central and South America culminated in his history of Oenothera. Shortly before his death the manuscript entitled "Oenothera, Cytogenetics and Evolution" was sent to the publisher.

Scope and Content:

The bulk of the correspondence in this collection deals with research on Oenothera; some letters, however, relate to the persecution of Jews in Germany in 1938; the Paraguayan War, 1865-1870; the botany departments at the University of Michigan and the University of Minnesota; economic conditions in the United States, 1934; discrimination against women; scientific research during World War II; roses; rubber plants; and bougainvillea.

Note on Indexing Term - "Indiana University": Ralph Erskine Cleland was a professor of botany.

Acquisition information:
Gift: 1971

This collection is arranged following original order.

Physical location:
Lilly - Stacks

Indexed Terms

Depressions--1934--United States
Evening primrose
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)
Paraguayan War, 1865-1870
Rubber plants
Sex discrimination against women
World War, 1939-1945--Science--Research
Indiana University
World War, 1939-1945
University of Michigan. Department of Botany
University of Minnesota. Department of Botany
Abrams, Le Roy, 1874-1956
Allen, Charles E. (Charles Elmer), 1872-1954
Anderson, Edgar, 1897-1969
Archer, W. Andrew (William Andrew), 1894-1973
Atkinson, George Francis, 1854-1918
Babcock, E. B. (Ernest Brown), 1877-1954
Bailey, Irving W. (Irving Widmer), 1884-1967
Barron, Leonard, 1868-1938
Bartlett, Harley Harris, 1886-1960
Baur, Erwin, 1875-1933
Bĕlař, Karl Franz Josef, 1895-1931
Belling, John, 1866-
Bergner, A. Dorothy (Anna Dorothy)
Blakeslee, Albert Francis, 1874-1954
Blanchard, Frieda Cobb, 1889-1977
Bonnevie, Kristine, 1872-1948
Boulenger, George Albert, 1858-1937
Brink, R. Alexander (Royal Alexander), 1897-1984
Briquet, John, 1870-1931
Buchet, Samuel, 1875-1956
Buchholz, John Theodore, 1888-1951
Burlingame, Leonas Lancelot, 1876-
Calkins, Gary N. (Gary Nathan), 1869-
Camp, W. H. (Wendell Holmes), 1904-1963
Catcheside, David Guthrie, 1907-1994
Chamberlain, Charles Joseph, 1863-
Chivers, Arthur Houston, 1880-
Clausen, Jens (Jens Christian), 1891-1969
Cleland, Ralph E., 1892-1971
Clements, Frederic E. (Frederic Edward), 1874-1945
Cole, Leon J. (Leon Jacob), 1877-1948
Compton, Robert Harold
Conklin, Edwin Grant, 1863-1952
Cook, O. F. (Orator Fuller), 1867-1949
Crouse, Helen Virginia, 1914-2006
Darlington, C. D. (Cyril Dean), 1903-1981
Davenport, Charles Benedict, 1866-1944
Davis, Bradley M. (Bradley Moore), 1871-1957
Deam, Charles Clemon, 1865-1953
Demerec, M. (Milislav), 1895-1966
Dowell, Philip, 1864-1936
East, Edward M. (Edward Murray), 1879-1938
Eastwood, Alice, 1859-1953
Emerson, Ralph, 1912-1979
Emerson, Sterling, 1900-1988
Erlanson, Eileen Whitehead, 1899-2002
Fairchild, David, 1869-1954
Fernald, Merritt Lyndon, 1873-1950
Fujii, Kenjirō, 1866-1952
Gagnepain, F. (François), 1866-1952
Gaiser, Lulu O. (Lulu Odell), 1896-1965
Galán, Fernando, 1908-1999
Gates, R. Ruggles (Reginald Ruggles), 1882-1962
Goldschmidt, Richard, 1878-1958
Greenman, J. M. (Jesse More), 1867-1951
Grégoire, Victor Marie Théodore Joseph, 1870-1938
Hall, Harvey Monroe, 1874-1932
Hammond, Bayard Louis, 1900-
Hanson, Frank Blair, 1886-1945
Harper, R. A. (Robert Almer), 1862-1946
Hegner, Robert William, 1880-1942
Hemsley, W. Botting (William Botting), 1843-1924
Heribert-Nilsson, Nils, 1883-1955
Heslop-Harrison, John William, 1881-1967
Hill, Arthur W. (Arthur William), Sir, 1875-1941
Huskins, C. Leonard (Charles Leonard), 1897-1953
Illick, John Theron
Jeffrey, Edward C. (Edward Charles), 1866-
Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947
Johansen, Donald Alexander, 1901-
Jones, L. R. (Lewis Ralph), 1864-1945
Karpechenko, Georgii Dmitrievich, 1899-1941
Kaufmann, B. P. (Berwind Peterson), 1897-1975
Keck, David D. (David Daniels), 1903-
Kelley, Arthur Pierson, 1897-1979
Kellogg, Vernon L. (Vernon Lyman), 1867-1937
Kelly, James Peter
Kihara, Hitoshi
Laughton, Elaine Margaret Young, 1898-1974
League, Bessie
Lehmann, Ernst, 1880-1957
Little, Clarence C. (Clarence Cook), 1888-1971
Longley, William H. (William Harding), 1881-1937
Lotsy, Johannes Paulus, 1867-1931
Lutz, Anne M., 1871-1938
MacDowell, E. Carleton (Edwin Carleton), 1887-1973
Macfarlane, John Muirhead, 1855-1943
Maeda, Takeshige
Martens, Pierre (botanist)
McClintock, Barbara, 1902-1992
McClung, C. E. (Clarence Erwin), 1870-1946
Modilewski, J.
Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 1866-1945
Munz, Philip A. (Philip Alexander), 1892-1974
Navashin, M. S. (Mikhail Sergeevich)
Nebel, Bernard Rudolf, 1901-1963
Oehlkers, Friedrich, 1890-1971
Osborn, Fairfield, 1887-1969
Peirce, George James, 1868-1954
Poddubnaya-Arnoldi, V. A.
Polhamus, Loren G. (Loren George), 1895-
Randolph, L. F. (Lowell Fitz), 1894-1980
Renner, Otto, 1883-1960
Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, 1864-1935
Robinson, John, 1846-1925
Rosenberg, O. (Otto), 1872-1949
Rudloff, C. F.
Russell, Mary Anna
Sander, Hans Gerhard Friedrich
Satina, Sophia, 1879-1975
Sax, Karl, 1892-1973
Schwemmle, J.
Sears, Paul B. (Paul Bigelow), 1891-1990
Seifriz, William, 1888-1955
Sharp, Lester W. (Lester Whyland), 1887-
Shull, Charles A. (Charles Albert), 1879-1962
Shull, George Harrison, 1874-1954
Siebs, Helmi
Sinnott, Edmund W. (Edmund Ware), 1888-1958
Smith, Gilbert Morgan, 1885-1959
Stanley, Wendell M. (Wendell Meredith), 1904-1971
Stern, Curt, 1902-1981
Stifler, Mary Cloyd Burnley, 1876-1956
Stomps, Theodoor Jan, 1885-1973
Stout, Arlow Burdette, 1876-1957
Streeter, George Linius, 1873-1948
Stunkard, Horace W. (Horace Wesley), 1889-1989
Sturtevant, A. H. (Alfred Henry), 1891-1970
Sumwalt, Margaret, 1901-
Svedlius, Nils Eberhard, 1873-1960
Taylor, William Randolph, 1895-
Thompson, Walter Palmer, 1889-1970
Tischler, Georg Friedrich Leopold, 1878-
Tisdale, E. W.
Tracy, S. M. (Samuel Mills), 1847-1920
True, Rodney H. (Rodney Howard), 1866-1940
Tuan, Hsu-Chuan, 1902-1989
Vries, Hugo de, 1848-1935
Weier, T. Elliot (Thomas Elliot), 1903-1991
Weiss, F. E. (Frederick Ernest), 1865-1953
Went, Friedrich August Ferdinand Christian, 1863-1935
Wettstein, Richard, Ritter von Westersheim, 1863-1931
Wherry, Edgar Theodore, 1885-
Whitaker, Thomas W. (Thomas Wallace), 1904-1993
White, Elizabeth Lloyd
Whiting, P. W. (Phineas Westcott), 1887-1978
Williams, Mary Wilhelmine, 1878-1944
Wilson, Edmund B. (Edmund Beecher), 1856-1939
Wiþniewska, Ewa
Woolnough, Frank, 1845-1930



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[Item], Cleland mss., Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

Indiana University Bloomington
1200 East Seventh Street
Bloomington, Indiana 47405-5500, USA
Indiana University Bloomington
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